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PV Module, Specifications 이해 하기

게시자: Sundew Shin, 2011. 6. 21. 오후 5:58   [ 2011. 10. 19. 오후 6:46에 업데이트됨 ]

Electrical Specifications

  • Physical Spec.
    • Length: 1580mm
    • Width: 808mm
    • Thickness: 50mm
    • Weight: 26Kg

  • Operational Spec.
    • Wind load: 2.4KPa
    • Snow load: 5.4KPa

  • Power (Output) Tolerance: +/-3%
    Minimizing PV system mismatch losses

  • Peak Power  (Wp): 180 Wp
    Maximum Power at STC (25C)

  • MPP-voltage (Vmp): 35.60 Vmp
    Maximum Power Point = Optimum operating voltage
    The voltage generated by a PV module or array when exposed to sunlight w/ load.
    MPPT charge controllers는 하루 종일 이 기준 voltage를 추적하도록 설계 되어 있다.

  • MPP-current (Imp): 5.05A
    The current generated by a PV module or array when exposed to sunlight w/ load.
    이 기준으로 array 구성, battery기반 시스템이라면 charge controller의 내부구성품의 rating을 결정 한다.

  • Open-circuit Voltage (Voc): 44.40V
    The maximum voltage generated when exposed to sunlight w/o load.
    모든 PV 시스템의 모듈들, 그러니까, module, wring, inverters, charge controllers 등은 시스템단위로 규정한 최고전압에 견디는 것들이어야 한다.

  • Short-circuit current (Isc): 5.4A
    The amperage generated by a PV module or array when exposed to sunlight and with the output w/ terminals shorted.
    PV 회로 배선의 fuse, circuit protector에 대한 과전류보호등급의 기준이 된다. (NEC 680.8)

  • Temperature coefficients for Voc: -0.3401%/C (the lower the better)
    This specification allows us to calculate how much module power will be lost or gained due to temperature shifts.
    우리의 200Wp 등급의 모듈이 temperature coefficient가 -0.5%라고하고 현재 온도는 70C일 때:
    70 - 25 = 45C
    45 * 0.5 = 22.5%
    200 * 22.5 = 45W
    200 - 45 = 155Wp, 즉, 이 모듈의 온도가 70도일 Wp는 155W가 된다.

  • Temperature coefficients for Isc: 0.017%/C (the lower the better)

  • Permissible system voltage: 600V
    Maximum System Voltage

  • Fuse Rating
    If a module's series fuse rating is 20 amps, then you divide that by the combined safety factor of 1.56. so you could safely wire 12.8 amps of modules together in parallel. If each module's short circuit current is 4.2 amps, then you could parallel 3 modules. Regardless, we don't recommend ever wiring more than 4 modules in parallel in one subarray, and some inspectors don't allow any parallel wiring within a subarray.

Efficiency

...

New/Different Technology

Spray-on Solar Cells

You probably don’t think of cleantech when you think of Mitsubishi, but it’s been pushing its name into the field lately. A couple years ago, it broke the PV solar cell efficiency record. This year, it unveiled solar-powered EV charging stations at it headquarters in Cypress, California. And I’ve just read that it is developing spray-on solar cells.
 
Now, spray-on solar power technology has been in the works and popping up in the news from time to time for years. In February 2009, we wrote about some spray-on solar panels Australian researchers are working on. Later that year, we wrote that scientists at the University of Texas in Austin were working on spray-on solar cells of their own. In January 2010, we covered a spray-on solar power technology breakthrough by New Energy Technologies. And Tina has covered this and related solar technologies this year already. But, unless I’m mistaken, solar panel spray isn’t yet available at your local hardware store. So, the race to develop a market-ready product is still on.
 
Mitsubishi is apparently in the race, as Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. recently unveiled that it has developed a spray-on solar technology that could put solar cells on buildings, vehicles, chimneys, or even clothing.
 
Less than 1 millimeter in thickness and not even a tenth the weight of crystalline solar cells of the same size, these spray-on solar cells have some clear advantages beyond the fact that they can be applied so easily to such a range of surfaces.
 
Mitsubishi intends to work with some carmakers to make a car coated in these solar cells and projects that such a car could go 10 kilometers (over 6 miles) after a 2-hour charge.
 
Mitsubishi’s Spray-on Solar Cell Technology
 
“The new solar cells utilize carbon compounds which, when dried and solidified, act as semiconductors and generate electricity in reaction to being exposed to light,” The Independent reports.
 
“Mitsubishi Chemical is the first company to create prototype spray-on solar cells, which at present have a practical conversion level of 10.1 percent of light energy into electricity.”
 
Of course, 10.1 percent doesn’t compare to the 20 percent or so efficiency level of standard crystalline silicon solar cells, but Mitsubishi is confident it can get to 15 percent by 2015 and 20 percent eventually. We’ll see. And you can bet someone from CleanTechnica will report on it if they do.

Cylindrical Module

Solyndra designs and manufactures proprietary cylindrical modules incorporating copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film technology. Our panels employ cylindrical modules which capture sunlight across a 360-degree photovoltaic surface capable of converting direct, diffuse and reflected sunlight into electricity. In the industry sometimes panels are referred to as modules; at Solyndra, each panel is made up of individual modules.


Reliable Manufacturing

A Solyndra module starts in our front-end facility as a glass tube and passes through a complex, highly-automated manufacturing process and rigorous quality control before emerging as an encapsulated package ready to efficiently convert energy from the sun. There are approximately 23 steps to build and protect the 195 thin-film solar cells created in the manufacture of each module, encompassing cleaning, deposition, scribing, binning, insertion, filling, testing, panel framing and flash testing.

Each module in a 200 Series panel has 195 individual solar cells.The inner cylinder is protected by a liquid optical coupling agent (OCA) which serves as a moisture barrier and increases the active solar cell surface of the internal tube.

Each module is designed to produce electricity for more than 25 years in the harsh environment of the rooftop.The hermetic seal on our glass tubes ensure the CIGS material inside remains protected from contamination. Each tube is helium leak tested.

Solyndra’s factory has produced over 16 million modules and each day produces approximately 1000 panels or 40,000 modules ramping to more than 3000 panels a day in 2013.



Broader Shoulders: More Power During the Day



The tubular design of a Solyndra module is “self-tracking”. Collecting light around a 360 degree surface allows it to capture more light early and late in the day. with broader shoulders and less peak during the day. This consistent power generation during the day allows the use of a smaller inverter, saving costs and benefits the overall energy yield of a system over time.

Advantages with Snow and Soiling

Because of our unique design, light snow falls through the Solyndra panels and the panels actually benefit from the increased albedo (reflected light) from a fresh snowfall. Solyndra systems experience less system loss due to snow.





The cylindrical design attracts less dirt and airborne particles, and moisture or rain that lands or forms on the modules works to clean the cylinders. Research shows that energy loss due to soiling on Solyndra systems is approximately half of that for conventional flat panels.

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module_comparison_factors.txt
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Sundew Shin,
2011. 10. 18. 오후 5:15
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