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Factory Operation: Power Management

게시자: Sundew Shin, 2011. 4. 11. 오전 4:38   [ 2011. 5. 11. 오전 12:18에 업데이트됨 ]

Brainstorming

The intended audience of this report is personnel or group of people whose interests are saving electricity consumption of their job sites such as buildings or utility systems. This survey started with the assumption there is possibility that some methodology for energy saving is already implemented and in action on your systems. Without fully investigating the target system and existing strategy, any type of energy consulting would become a outdated news from a wordy reporter. Before we start, I suggest you answer the following questions not only I want to hear about your system but also it will be helpful to you to review what you are doing to improve the current situation.
  • What is the current data acquiring methods & optimization strategy?
    • Realize the current electricity usage monitoring layer/points for the MES connectivity
  • or, Meet the people whose main concern is on this topic and ask the followings:
    • The cycle of the energy consumption improvement
    • What is the main targets for optimization?
    • How efficient is the current method?
    • What are the major issues and problem??
  • and understand the needs
    • What is the existing limitation of monitoring points, data analysis technique?

Who's Responsible

I would like to ask you how many vendors did you ever meet who one day came to you and say they found a problem in the system which increased the electricity usage so they fixed it, and it would save you million dollars per year. If it is close to zero, I think that is very real and that is because almost all vendors are not monitoring such energy consumption status at the very beginning. System providers simply do not care for that because it is either related to their cost or in scope of their work.
So who should be proactive on saving the energy? The answer is you, the owner of the system.

The Good News & Bad News

O.K. You motivated system owners. Here are the bad news on implementing the energy saving action layer:
  • Additional Implementation costs
  • Added complexity of the target system
  • Additional monitoring points
  • System/Cultural Planning & Execution needed
It is clear the added cost will be reimbursed with glory, but you would want to do recovery cycle estimation for initial planing. Better design concept can minimize the system complexity impact. The added monitoring points would require more man-power and/or add more load for the already overworking engineers and operators. Defining the operation mode and simplify the patterned action item could minimize the initial refusal from the group. (e.g. 'In Service,' 'Full Operation,' 'Energy Saving')

Next, here are the good news:
  • Cost saving
  • The start of many exciting innovations:
    Improve the company image to the public.
  • More detailed view against the system will develop the insight for the system
    "No no, we don't think that's optimized design for saving energy. We request your reconsideration"
  • Design Optimization:
    e.g. Booster pump vertical location considering the gravity effect
  • Positive effects during operation: Preventive maintenance

Implementation

The principle of energy management is to minimize the total cost of energy consumption and not the total energy consumption, and the followings are the general concerns:
  • Cost per unit of energy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Weather impact on energy consumption
  • Volume mix impact on energy consumption
  • Pollution control impact on energy consumption
  • Other impacts on energy consumption
The saving energy starts at measuring the power usage. It is the beginning of all innovative ideas and initiatives for saving power. Here I go over the requirement criteria for the measuring instrument, or implementation, for maximizing the output of our goal:
  • Immediate and Responsive
    • "Heater turns on in the middle of night. we put an insulation blanket and it does not start anymore. It is great that you can quickly see the results of the changes we do."
  • Easy to understand
    • Maximize the accessibility and usability
    • Easy to access: Without gaining mutual agreement in the community, there will be no synergy and the whole endeavor fail to an one time event.
    • case study: Adobe
  • Must be merged into existing monitoring/control with isolation
    • Merging with the existing HMI will create a single point of supervision.
    • but, it should not have any possibility disrupting the existing services. (should be isolated as early as at the network layer)
  • Expert Systems
    • How it has designed and developed based on which probability model??
    • Advanced data analysis tools
[Google Powermeter UI]

Where to Start

We suggest to add request in your future Specification of Operation, or SOO, for all future implantation requiring certain level of power usage monitoring for the systems and distribute to the vendors. (the value will be added to SI vendors), and this will be the:
  • clean/cheapest/easiest way of implementation
  • generic merge on to the main monitoring/controlling system
For the existing systems, you would need to:
  • modify the existing panels
  • have consultation with energy saving specialists

The Phases

We design the level for implementing for saving the energy as:
  • Phase1: Monitoring
    Change already start. It's like bringing a mirror to your face. You start thinking about how you look.
  • Phase2: Resolution Improvement
    Refine the resolution of monitoring
    Apply the expert system theories
    Improve the efficiency
Dividing all instrument as the status:
  • Always on (in operation)
  • On-standby (stand-by)
  • Off-standby (stand-by)
  • Off from the power line (disconnection)

Understanding Data

Profiling

[Sample - Energy Consumption Profiling]

The energy consumption profiling is a technique measuring the power usage for each unit in given resolution. The finer the resolution goes, the energy saving strategy can go more detail. Simply, if you want to draw energy saving implementation as small as instrument level, the profiling should go in that level too. This allows for a cost-by-cause allocation of power consumptions and costs. Furthermore, typical operating states can be promptly detected. (TODO: revise this paragraph)

Electricity usage profiling can be suggest in two type.
  1. Instrument-level Identification:
    Finding the power signature
    http://fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/pdf/FSEC-CR-1665-06.pdf
  2. Process-level Identification:
Power monitoring during the operation cycle reveals the typical power usage pattern. The acquired data categorized by the chosen profiling criteria allows us to utilize information that an unit system creates over time and prepare the information to be actionable. We can discover the ways to make information help deliver optimal utility performance.

[Record the energy consumption during your industrial process]

Creating Report

The following is a sample report based on analyzing the data acquired from the above procedure.

[Electricity Usage of a Semiconductor Fab]

Analysis

This part requires users consultation with the energy saving experts. The following items can be evaluated and suggested for improvement:
  • Voltage evaluation
  • Current flow review
  • Power factor assessment
  • Power consumption levels
  • Harmonics testing (designed to help identify the source of any electrical problems) -> Preventive Maintenance
The unbalanced component combination creates fluctuations in the current drawn, which in turn can cause harmonic currents to travel to the outer edge of electrical conductors, resulting in a build-up of heat. You may also experience surges or spikes in the supply, causing circuit breakers to trip and power usage to increase.

Base Data

[Siemens SENTRON]

[Siemens SENTRON: PAC 3200]

[Google Powermeter: Case Study]

[Rockwell Automation: GreenPrint]

[Suggested Modification after Analysis]

Vendor Solutions

Pretty much all control solution providers suggest energy saving solutions.
  • Siemens SETRON Powermanager
  • Rockwell Automation: GreenPrint
  • Google Powermeter project: Reference only for the superior Accessibility (cost, IT solutions)
The common fact is that their main feature is archiving the acquired data and export to ASCII/Excel file for data evaluation.

Standards

SEMI S23-0705

The title is 'Guide for Conservation of Energy, Utilities, and Materials Used by Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment.' SEMI S23-0708 is the Guide for Conservation of Energy, Utilities and Materials Used by Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment.

[SEMI S23/ E6 power consumption reporting standard]

References


tag:article | tag:building | tag:electricity | tag:green
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